Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) were prepared ultrasonically and simultaneously coated over cotton fabric activated with atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier (DBD) discharge. Titanium isopropoxide and extract of Aloe vera plant were used as a precursor and reducing agent, respectively, for the biosynthesis of TiO2-NPs. Cotton fabric was pre-treated with DBD plasma for different plasma exposure times. The effect of DBD plasma treatment on wettability and stability of TiO2-NPs on cotton fabric were studied. The obtained samples were investigated using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, UV–vis spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction to check the surface functionality, crystallite size and surface morphology. TiO2-NPs showed both spherical and triangular surface morphologies with dominating anatase phase and average crystallite size of 11.27 nm. The optimum condition for wettability was defined by using a water drop test method. Self-cleaning property of raw cotton, plasma-treated and plasma-TiO2-coated cotton fabric was evaluated by degrading methylene blue solution under daylight irradiation. The plasma-TiO2-coated fabric showed high self-cleaning efficiency due to firm bonding of nanoparticles on plasma-functionalized surface. The tensile strength of the fabric decreased slightly on plasma functionalization due to etching and pitting effects but increased after TiO2 coating of fabric.