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Ultrafast, Zero-Bias, Graphene Photodetectors with Polymeric Gate Dielectric on Passive Photonic Waveguides.

  • Mišeikis, Vaidotas1, 2, 3
  • Marconi, Simone2, 4
  • Giambra, Marco A2, 4
  • Montanaro, Alberto2
  • Martini, Leonardo1
  • Fabbri, Filippo1, 3
  • Pezzini, Sergio1, 3
  • Piccinini, Giulia1, 5
  • Forti, Stiven1
  • Terrés, Bernat6
  • Goykhman, Ilya7
  • Hamidouche, Louiza8
  • Legagneux, Pierre8
  • Sorianello, Vito2
  • Ferrari, Andrea C9
  • Koppens, Frank H L6, 10
  • Romagnoli, Marco2
  • Coletti, Camilla1, 3
  • 1 Center for Nanotechnology Innovation @NEST, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 2 Photonic Networks and Technologies Lab, CNIT, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 3 Graphene Labs, Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia, Via Morego 30, 16163 Genova, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 4 TeCIP Institute, Scuola Superiore Sant'Anna, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 5 NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza San Silvestro 12, 56127 Pisa, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 6 ICFO - Institut de Ciencies Fotoniques, the Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology, Av. Carl Friedrich Gauss 3, 08860 Castelldefels, Spain. , (Spain)
  • 7 Technion - Israel Institute of Technology, Technion City, 3200003 Haifa, Israel. , (Israel)
  • 8 Thales Research and Technology, 1, Avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau, France. , (France)
  • 9 Cambridge Graphene Centre, Cambridge University, 9 J.J. Thompson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 OFA, United Kingdom. , (United Kingdom)
  • 10 ICREA, Institució Catalana de Recerça i Estudis Avancats, Barcelona 08010, Spain. , (Spain)
Published Article
ACS Nano
American Chemical Society
Publication Date
Aug 21, 2020
DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.0c02738
PMID: 32790351


We report compact, scalable, high-performance, waveguide integrated graphene-based photodetectors (GPDs) for telecom and datacom applications, not affected by dark current. To exploit the photothermoelectric (PTE) effect, our devices rely on a graphene/polymer/graphene stack with static top split gates. The polymeric dielectric, poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA), allows us to preserve graphene quality and to generate a controllable p-n junction. Both graphene layers are fabricated using aligned single-crystal graphene arrays grown by chemical vapor deposition. The use of PVA yields a low charge inhomogeneity ∼8 × 1010 cm-2 at the charge neutrality point, and a large Seebeck coefficient ∼140 μV K-1, enhancing the PTE effect. Our devices are the fastest GPDs operating with zero dark current, showing a flat frequency response up to 67 GHz without roll-off. This performance is achieved on a passive, low-cost, photonic platform, and does not rely on nanoscale plasmonic structures. This, combined with scalability and ease of integration, makes our GPDs a promising building block for next-generation optical communication devices.

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