Ouabain-sensitive, K(+)-dependent, p-nitrophenylphosphatase (K-NPPase) is the second dephosphorylative property of the Na-K ATPase complex. Localization of its activity in the horizontal portion of the facial nerve in 11 normal cats was studied ultracytochemically using a cerium-based method. The fine granular reaction product of the K-NPPase activity was observed on the cytoplasmic side of the axolemma of the axon cylinder. Enzyme activity was also detected on the cytoplasmic side of the plasma membrane of Schmidt-Lanterman incisures and nodes of Ranvier. No reaction product was detected on the periaxonal and outermost plasma membrane of Schwann cells and in the myelin sheath. In control tissue samples, enzyme activity was almost completely inhibited by 10 mM ouabain, and no reaction was noted in medium without K+. The present findings indicate that localization of Na-K ATPase in the cat facial nerve simulates that of other peripheral and cranial nerves.