One of the major bottlenecks limiting farmers’ access to good quality seed for food crops in Uganda is the shortage of early generation seed (EGS - breeder and foundation) to produce sufficient quantities of certified and/or quality declared) to satisfy the needs of farmers. A national study was conducted between October 2015 to March 2016 to analyse pathways for promoting commercial and sustainable production and delivery of EGS. Five crops (hybrid maize, rice, beans, sesame and finger millet) were selected. The analysis provides real examples of potential business models that could scale in a commercially sustainable manner. For areas that are best suited to public sector investment, opportunities for public-private collaboration and increased efficiencies in the sector are outlined. Generalizable principles and recommendations to guide key stakeholders as they pursue policies, investments, and interventions are proposed.