AimThe objective of this study was to assess methods of feeding preterm neonates during hospitalization and at NICU discharge. Material and methodsIt was a questionnaire-based observational study on the use of human breast milk in nutrition of preterm infants. The questionnaires were distributed among mothers of preterm neonates on the last day of hospitalization.The material was divided into two groups: children born before 33 weeks of gestation (group 1) and children born between 33 and 37 weeks of gestation (group 2). ResultsDuring hospitalization, 85% received maternal breast milk – 24% were given breast milk only and 61% were additionally fed with neonatal formula for preterm babies, whereas 15% infants received only the formula. At the day of discharge data on feeding ways were: 59% children received exclusive breast-feeding, 12% mixed-feeding (maternal breast milk combined with formula in a 50:50 ratio), 9% mixed-feeding with formula constituting over 50% of the total supply, and 20% were not breastfed at all. In group 2, during hospitalization, 84% were breastfed and the remaining 16% received formula. At the day of discharge the ratio was in favor of maternal breast milk: 95% of the infants received it. Additional analysis of ways of administering breast milk and formula were made. The results revealed that 19 mothers were breastfeeding, 4 used expressed breast milk, and 28 combined both methods. Additionally 29% children received formula: in 8 of them, i.e. a half of the studied cases, it constituted less than half of daily milk supply, while the remaining subjects received maternal breast milk and formula in a 1:1 ratio.