Antigen receptor-induced signaling plays an important role in inflammation and immunity. Formation of a CARD11-BCL10-MALT1 (CBM) signaling complex is a key event in T- and B cell receptor-induced gene expression by regulating NF-κB activation and mRNA stability. Deregulated CARD11, BCL10 or MALT1 expression or CBM signaling have been associated with immunodeficiency, autoimmunity and cancer, indicating that CBM formation and function have to be tightly regulated. Over the past years great progress has been made in deciphering the molecular mechanisms of assembly and disassembly of the CBM complex. In this context, several posttranslational modifications play an indispensable role in regulating CBM function and downstream signal transduction. In this review we summarize how the different CBM components as well as their interplay are regulated by protein ubiquitination and phosphorylation in the context of T cell receptor signaling.