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Typhoid Conjugate Vaccine: A Boon for Endemic Regions.

Authors
  • Agarwal, Nitesh1
  • Gupta, Naveen2
  • Nishant,3
  • H S, Surendra4
  • Dutta, Trayambak5
  • Mahajan, Manish6
  • 1 Department of Pediatrics, Southern Gem Hospital, Hyderabad, IND.
  • 2 Department of Pediatrics, Happy Family Hospital, Karnal, IND.
  • 3 Department of Pediatrics, Nihan Medical Children Hospital, Patna, IND.
  • 4 Department of Pediatrics, Natus Women and Children Hospital, Bengaluru, IND.
  • 5 Department of Infectious Disease, Zydus Lifesciences, Ahmedabad, IND.
  • 6 Medical Affairs, Zydus Lifesciences, Ahmedabad, IND.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Cureus
Publisher
Cureus, Inc.
Publication Date
Mar 01, 2024
Volume
16
Issue
3
Identifiers
DOI: 10.7759/cureus.56454
PMID: 38650789
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Typhoid fever has the highest disease burden in countries in low- and middle-income countries, primarily located in Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Previous typhoid vaccines such as the live attenuated typhoid (Ty21a) vaccine and Vi (virulence) capsular polysaccharide vaccine had the limitation that they could not be administered with other standard childhood immunizations and were ineffective in children under two years of age. To address these shortcomings of the previous vaccines, typhoid conjugate vaccines (TCVs) were developed and prequalified by the World Health Organization. Cross-reacting material and tetanus toxoid are widely used as carrier proteins in TCVs. According to various studies, TCV has higher efficacy, has a more extended protection period, and is safe and immunogenic in infants as young as six months. This review article aims to comprehensively appraise the data available on TCVs' efficacy, duration of protection, safety, and immunogenicity in endemic regions. Copyright © 2024, Agarwal et al.

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