Many bacteria symbiotic and parasitic in humans are included in the genera Bacteroides, Prevotella, Porphyromonas and others, which belong to the phylum Bacteroidetes. We have been studying gingipain, a major secretory protease of Porphyromonas gingivalis which is a periodontopathogenic bacterium belonging to the genus Porphyromonas, and pili which contribute to host colonization in the bacterium. In the process, it was found that gingipain was secreted by a system not reported previously. Furthermore, this secretion system was found to exist widely in the Bacteroidetes phylum bacteria and closely related to the gliding motility of bacteroidete bacteria, and it was named the Por secretion system (later renamed the type IX secretion system). Regarding P. gingivalis pili, it was found that the pilus protein is transported as a lipoprotein to the cell surface, and the pilus formation occurs due to degradation by arginine-gingipain. Pili with this novel formation mechanism was found to be widely present in bacteria belonging to the class Bacteroidia in the phylum Bacteroidetes and was named the type V pili.