The aim of this study was to examine the association between type of dental visit and number of remaining teeth in Japanese elders. Data were collected from 3,163 adults aged 75 or 80 years who underwent an oral health examination. Type of dental visit was classified into four categories by treatment(s) received (none, periodontal, caries, or other treatment). Number of remaining teeth was classified as ≥20, 10-19, or 0-9 teeth. Multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to examine associations between type of dental visit and number of remaining teeth among all participants and the 3,032 dentate elderly. As compared with elders who did not visit a dentist, those who received periodontal or caries treatments had a significantly lower odds ratio for having 0-9 teeth, and those who received periodontal treatment had a significantly lower odds ratio of having 10-19 teeth. In the multivariate linear regression model, number of days of periodontal treatment was positively associated with number of remaining teeth. Our results suggest that type of dental visit is associated with number of remaining teeth in Japanese elders.