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Two-Year Change in Blood Pressure Status and Left Ventricular Mass Index in Chinese Children

Authors
  • Li, Zilin1
  • Duan, Yao1
  • Zhao, Min2
  • Magnussen, Costan G.3, 4, 5
  • Xi, Bo1
  • 1 Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan , (China)
  • 2 Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Cheeloo College of Medicine, Shandong University, Jinan , (China)
  • 3 Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania, Hobart, TAS , (Australia)
  • 4 Research Centre of Applied and Preventive Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Turku, Turku , (Finland)
  • 5 Centre for Population Health Research, Turku University Hospital, University of Turku, Turku , (Finland)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Frontiers in Medicine
Publisher
Frontiers Media SA
Publication Date
Aug 24, 2021
Volume
8
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3389/fmed.2021.708044
Source
Frontiers
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Medicine
  • Original Research
License
Green

Abstract

Background: Elevated blood pressure (BP) is associated with target organ damage, such as left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), in childhood. However, it is unclear if children who resolve elevated BP have reduced levels of left ventricular mass index (LVMI). This study aimed to examine the association between change in BP status over 2 years and LVMI among Chinese children. Methods: Data were from 1,183 children aged 6–11 years at baseline in 2017 who were followed up in 2019 in the Huantai Childhood Cardiovascular Health Cohort Study. Change in BP status over 2 years from baseline to follow-up was categorized as: persistent normal BP, resolved elevated BP (elevated BP at baseline, normal BP at follow-up), incident elevated BP (normal BP at baseline, elevated BP at follow-up), and persistent elevated BP. Elevated BP status was defined according to national reference standards as systolic or diastolic BP levels ≥ sex-, age-, and height-specific 95th percentiles. Results: LVMI levels were lowest in children with persistent normal BP (30.13 g/m2.7), higher in those with incident elevated BP (31.27 g/m2.7), and highest in those with persistent elevated BP (33.26 g/m2.7). However, LVMI levels in those who had resolved elevated BP (30.67 g/m2.7) were similar to those with persistent normal BP. In the fully adjusted model, compared with children with persistent normal BP, those with persistent elevated BP and incident elevated BP had higher LVMI at follow-up (ß = 3.131, p < 0.001; ß = 1.143, p = 0.041, respectively). In contrast, those who had resolved elevated BP did not have a significantly higher LVMI (ß = 0.545, p = 0.194) than those with persistent normal BP. Conclusion: Developing or maintaining elevated BP over a 2-year period in childhood associated with higher levels of LVMI, but those able to resolve their elevated BP status over the same period had LVMI levels that were similar with those who had normal BP at both time points. Thus, it is important to identify children with elevated BP at early time and to take effective measures to lower their BP levels, thereby reducing high LVMI levels and related cardiovascular diseases in the future.

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