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Two genes in a pathogenicity gene cluster encoding secreted proteins are required for appressorial penetration and infection of the maize anthracnose fungus Colletotrichum graminicola.

Authors
  • Eisermann, Iris1
  • Weihmann, Fabian1
  • Krijger, Jorrit-Jan1
  • Kröling, Christian1, 2
  • Hause, Gerd3
  • Menzel, Matthias4
  • Pienkny, Silke5
  • Kiesow, Andreas4
  • Deising, Holger B1
  • Wirsel, Stefan G R1
  • 1 Institut für Agrar- und Ernährungswissenschaften, Naturwissenschaftliche Fakultät III, Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Betty-Heimann-Str. 3, D-06120, Halle (Saale), Germany. , (Germany)
  • 2 Sächsisches Landesamt für Umwelt, Landwirtschaft und Geologie, Abteilung Obst-, Gemüse- und Weinbau, August-Böckstiegel-Str. 1, D-01326, Dresden-Pillnitz, Germany. , (Germany)
  • 3 Biozentrum der Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg, Weinbergweg 22, D-06120, Halle (Saale), Germany. , (Germany)
  • 4 Fraunhofer-Institut für Mikrostruktur von Werkstoffen und Systemen, Biologische und makromolekulare Materialien, Walter-Hülse-Str. 1, D-06120, Halle (Saale), Germany. , (Germany)
  • 5 Department of Bioorganic Chemistry, Leibniz Institute of Plant Biochemistry, Weinberg 3, D-06120, Halle (Saale), Germany. , (Germany)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Environmental Microbiology
Publisher
Wiley (Blackwell Publishing)
Publication Date
Dec 01, 2019
Volume
21
Issue
12
Pages
4773–4791
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1111/1462-2920.14819
PMID: 31599055
Source
Medline
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

To avoid pathogen-associated molecular pattern recognition, the hemibiotrophic maize pathogen Colletotrichum graminicola secretes proteins mediating the establishment of biotrophy. Targeted deletion of 26 individual candidate genes and seven gene clusters comprising 32 genes of C. graminicola identified a pathogenicity cluster (CLU5) of five co-linear genes, all of which, with the exception of CLU5b, encode secreted proteins. Targeted deletion of all genes of CLU5 revealed that CLU5a and CLU5d are required for full appressorial penetration competence, with virulence deficiencies independent of the host genotype and organ inoculated. Cytorrhysis experiments and microscopy showed that Δclu5a mutants form pressurized appressoria, but they are hampered in forming penetration pores and fail to differentiate a penetration peg. Whereas Δclu5d mutants elicited WT-like papillae, albeit at increased frequencies, papillae induced by Δclu5a mutants were much smaller than those elicited by the WT. Synteny of CLU5 is not only conserved in Colletotrichum spp. but also in additional species of Sordariomycetes including insect pathogens and saprophytes suggesting importance of CLU5 for fungal biology. Since CLU5a and CLU5d also occur in non-pathogenic fungi and since they are expressed prior to plant invasion and even in vegetative hyphae, the encoded proteins probably do not act primarily as effectors. © 2019 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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