The influence of the circadian pacemaker and of the duration of time awake on the electroencephalogram (EEG) was investigated in 19 humans during approximately 40 h of sustained wakefulness. Two circadian rhythms in spectral power density were educed. The first rhythm was centered in the theta band (4.25-8.0 Hz) and exhibited a minimum approximately 1 h after the onset of melatonin secretion. The second rhythm was centered in the high-frequency alpha band (10.25-13.0 Hz) and exhibited a minimum close to the body temperature minimum. The latter rhythm showed a close temporal association with the rhythms in subjective alertness, plasma melatonin, and body temperature. In addition, increasing time awake was associated with an increase of power density in the 0.25- to 9.0-Hz and 13.25- to 20. 0-Hz ranges. It is concluded that the waking EEG undergoes changes that can be attributed to circadian and homeostatic (i.e., sleep-wake dependent) processes. The distinct circadian variations of EEG activity in the theta band and in the high-frequency alpha band may represent electrophysiological correlates of different aspects of the circadian rhythm in arousal.