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Turbulence and Control of Wind Farms

Authors
  • Shapiro, Carl R.
  • Starke, Genevieve M.
  • Gayme, Dennice F.
Type
Published Article
Journal
Annual Review of Control, Robotics, and Autonomous Systems
Publisher
Annual Reviews
Publication Date
May 03, 2022
Volume
5
Pages
579–602
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1146/annurev-control-070221-114032
Source
Annual Reviews
Keywords
License
Yellow

Abstract

The dynamics of the turbulent atmospheric boundary layer play a fundamental role in wind farm energy production, governing the velocity field that enters the farm as well as the turbulent mixing that regenerates energy for extraction at downstream rows. Understanding the dynamic interactions among turbines, wind farms, and the atmospheric boundary layer can therefore be beneficial in improving the efficiency of wind farm control approaches. Anticipated increases in the sizes of new wind farms to meet renewable energy targets will increase the importance of exploiting this understanding to advance wind farm control capabilities. This review discusses approaches for modeling and estimation of the wind farm flow field that have exploited such knowledge in closed-loop control, to varying degrees. We focus on power tracking as an example application that will be of critical importance as wind farms transition into their anticipated role as major suppliers of electricity. The discussion highlights the benefits of including the dynamics of the flow field in control and points to critical shortcomings of the current approaches.

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