Weanling female germ-free Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: the control group rats were fed an autoclaved 5010C diet for 2 years; the nitrofurantoin (NF) group rats were fed this diet supplemented with 0.188% NF for 2 years; and the N-[4-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-2-thiazolyl]-formamide (FANFT) group rats were fed this diet supplemented with 0.188% FANFT for 20 weeks followed by 20 additional weeks of the control diet. The FANFT-group rats were killed following the early appearance of bladder tumors. Six of 11 control rats had tumors: 2 with mammary fibroadenomas, 1 with adrenal adenoma, 1 with leukemic spleen, and 2 with mesenchymal sarcoma of the colon. Ten of 12 NF-group rats had tumors: 9 with mammary fibroadenomas, 1 with adrenal adenoma, and 1 each with leukemic spleen and cervical squamous cell carcinoma. Eight of 12 FANFT-group rats had tumors: 7 with bladder and 1 with renal pelvis transitional cell carcinoma. The incidences of mammary fibroadenoma in the NF group and of lower urinary tract tumors in the FANFT group were significantly greater (P less than 0.01) than those of these tumors in the control group.