The patterns of integration of adenovirus type 12 (Ad12) DNA in 39 virus-induced hamster tumors were determined. Both the amount of Ad12 DNA persisting and the apparent sites of insertion differed from tumor to tumor. In 30 tumors, the intact Ad12 genome persisted in colinear arrangement and in multiple copies. In nine tumors, only the left- or the left- and right-hand parts of the Ad12 genome persisted in the tumor cells. In three other cell lines the Ad12 genomes were lost completely during continuous passage in culture. A shift from epithelioid to fibroblastic morphology correlated with loss of Adl2 genomes. The cell line H1111(1) derived from an Ad12-induced tumor had lost all viral DNA by the thirteenth subpassage, but was still oncogenic when reinjected into animals. This finding raises the question, to what extent persistence of the Ad12 genome is essential for the oncogenic phenotype. Tumor cells could be detected histologically inside local lymphatic vessels. In those experiments in which Ad12 preparations were used which contained sizeable proportions of the symmetric recombinant between Ad12 and KB cellular DNA (Deuring et al., 1981), tumors were observed in the nuchal region of the animals.