Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the most common infectious diseases worldwide. Data from WHO show that one third of the world population is estimated to be infected with Mycobacterium Tuberculosis (TM). TB remains an important problem for adults and children in Lithuania as number of new diagnosed children's TB cases vary between 16.7-21.8 per 100 000 population. The aim of this article is to present the TB pneumonia in childhood: peculiarities of clinical forms, symptoms, diagnostics, treatment and results. The diagnosis of TB in children more often is made on epidemiological data, supposed by clinical symptoms, tuberculin skin test and chest radiography results, rather than bacteriological data. Clinical symptoms of TB pneumonia are mostly similar to atypical pneumonia, caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae. We discussed similarities and differences between atypical and TB pneumonia, based on 10-year data of our patient ill with atypical and TB pneumonia, (123 - 63.7%) and (69 - 36.3%) respectively. Chemotherapy of TB is directed towards the eradication of TM. The main principle of TB chemotherapy is regular, directly controlled and long-term usage of several antituberculous drugs. The child, ill with TB, is totally cured, when he has no clinical symptoms or laboratory findings specific for TB and is able to return to his normal social life. Two clinical cases of children ill with TB pneumonia are discussed as well. We hope that this article and two clinical cases would remind pediatricians and family doctors to be aware of still possible TB in childhood.