Both clinical and radiologic manifestations can have unusual figures in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Infectious involvement, as in particularly tuberculosis, may simulate a neoplasm, and vice versa. We report a case of a tubercular pleuresy followed 14 months later by a lung cancer in a patient infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This observation pose the delicate diagnostic problem of a recurred endobronchial tuberculosis we describe the chest roentgenograms and the computed tomography-scans patterns. We give the place of both of them. We call attention to the valuable rôle of the endobronchial endoscopy in the differential diagnosis between a recurrence of the tuberculosis or a lung cancer. This case demonstrate quite well that thoracic complications in AIDS are multiple and can be variable in the course of the disease. That command a definite exploration for an appropriate diagnosis and treatment.