Tuberculosis-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is an excessive immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis that may occur in either HIV-infected or uninfected patients, during or after completion of anti-TB therapy. In HIV-infected patients it occurs after initiation of antiretroviral therapy independently from an effective suppression of HIV viremia. There are two forms of IRIS: paradoxical or unmasking. Paradoxical IRIS is characterized by recurrent, new, or worsening symptoms of a treated case. Unmasking IRIS is an antiretroviral-associated inflammatory manifestation of a subclinical infection with a hastened presentation. The pathogenesis is incompletely understood and the epidemiology partially described. No specific tests can establish or rule out the diagnosis. Treatment is based on the use of anti-tuberculosis drugs sometime with adjunctive corticosteroids. Mortality is generally low. © 2016 Published by Elsevier Ltd.