Prison inmates are generally considered to be a high-risk group for tuberculosis (TB). When compared to the general population, the incidence and prevalence rates for TB are significantly higher among inmates. This follow-up survey examines the TB situation in Berlin prison facilities from 2011-2016 in comparison to the years 1996-1998 and 2007-2010. It is based on a retrospective case series of all cases with active pulmonary TB documented in the Berlin Prison Hospital from 2011-2016. There, the chest X‑ray examination (CXR) according to § 36 (5) IfSG is an essential pillar of active case finding.The migration of the civilian population is accompanied by increases in case finding rates and multi-drug resistant (MDR) TB (16.7%) in the Berlin prison system. For the first time, nine first-infected cases of MDR-TB were recorded among 142 inmates with active lung TB (men: 97.2%, median age: 36.5 years, foreign nationals: 81.7%). Due to short periods of incarceration, treatment success by the time of release decreased to 14.6%.Through professional treatment and adequate monitoring of a vulnerable risk group that is hard to reach in a civilian environment, prison facilities make an important contribution to prevention of infection and TB control in Germany. However, in many cases, short detention periods require the release of inmates from prison while still under therapy. Lack of therapeutic success or incomplete treatments can thus contribute to the transmission of multi-resistant pathogens. Therefore, continuous health reporting, nationwide harmonised healthcare in prison facilities and ensuring the continuation and successful termination of anti-tuberculosis therapy following release, makes the relevance of an ongoing cooperation between the prison system and public health services more important.