Proteins have been considered important targets for reactive oxygen species. Indeed, tryptophan (W) has been shown to be a highly susceptible amino acid to many oxidizing agents, including singlet molecular oxygen [O2(1Deltag)]. In this study, two cis- and trans-tryptophan hydroperoxide (WOOH) isomers were completely characterized by HPLC/mass spectrometry and NMR analyses as the major W-oxidation photoproducts. These photoproducts underwent thermal decay into the corresponding alcohols. Additionally, WOOHs were shown to decompose under heating or basification, leading to the formation of N-formylkynurenine (FMK). Using 18O-labeled hydroperoxides (W18O18OH), it was possible to confirm the formation of two oxygen-labeled FMK molecules derived from W18O18OH decomposition. This result demonstrates that both oxygen atoms in FMK are derived from the hydroperoxide group. In addition, these reactions are chemiluminescent (CL), indicating a dioxetane cleavage pathway. This mechanism was confirmed since the CL spectrum of the WOOH decomposition matched the FMK fluorescence spectrum, unequivocally identifying FMK as the emitting species.