Location of electron transport chain components in chloroplast membranes of chlamydomonas reinhardi, y-1 was investigated by use of proteolytic digestion with soluble or insolubilized trypsin. Digestion of intact membrane vesicles with soluble trypsin inactivates the water-splitting system, the 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea inhibition site of Photosystem II, the electron transport between the two photosystems as well as the ferredoxin NADP reductase. Reduction of NADP with artificial electron donors for Photosystem I could be restored, however, by addition of purified reductase to trypsin-digested membranes. Electron transfer activities of Photosystems I and II reaction centers were resistant to trypsin digestion either from outside or from within the thylakoids when active trypsin was trapped inside the membrane vesicles by sonication and digestion carried out in the presence of trypsin inhibitor added from outside. In the latter case, the water-splitting system was also found to be resistant to digestion. Polyacrylamide-bound insolubilized trypsin inactivated only the ferredoxin NADP reductase. Photosynthetically active membranes obtained at different stages of development showed a basically similar behavior toward trypsin.