Cardiac fibroblasts play an important role in cardiac matrix turnover and are involved in cardiac fibrosis development. Ca2+ is a driving belt in this phenomenon. This study evaluates the functional expression and contribution of the Ca2+-activated channel TRPM4 in atrial fibroblast phenotype. Molecular and electrophysiological investigations were conducted in human atrial fibroblasts in primary culture and in atrial fibroblasts obtained from wild-type and transgenic mice with disrupted Trpm4 gene (Trpm4-/-). A typical TRPM4 current was recorded on human cells (equal selectivity for Na+ and K+, activation by internal Ca2+, voltage sensitivity, conductance of 23.2 pS, inhibition by 9-phenanthrol (IC50 = 6.1 × 10-6 mol L-1)). Its detection rate was 13% on patches at days 2-4 in culture but raised to 100% on patches at day 28. By the same time, a cell growth was observed. This growth was smaller when cells were maintained in the presence of 9-phenanthrol. Similar cell growth was measured on wild-type mice atrial fibroblasts during culture. However, this growth was minimized on Trpm4-/- mice fibroblasts compared to control animals. In addition, the expression of alpha smooth muscle actin increased during culture of atrial fibroblasts from wild-type mice. This was not observed in Trpm4-/- mice fibroblasts. It is concluded that TRPM4 participates in fibroblast growth and could thus be involved in cardiac fibrosis.