The purpose of the study was to analyze the relationship between the state and religious communities in Sweden, using historical and contemporary background and Resource mobilization theory. Results and conclusions show that Sweden is by law a Christian state. The Swedish state's definition of religion is narrow, and is reflected in legal texts. Furthermore, state subsidies to religious communities are distributed, administered and controlled by the communities themselves through political posts. The state and some religious organizations have, according to Resource mobilization theory, an unequal exchange relationship in which the religious communities get credibility and contributions in exchange for social work and confessional alternatives in public service. The religious organization´s most important resources in terms of money, legitimacy and political affairs come from the state. In this way, the state gives selected religious organizations the opportunity for political influence, while excluding others, according to Resource mobilization theory.