In the search for immunoprophylactics for the control of human lymphatic filariasis, we recently identified troponin 1 (Tn1) in Brugia malayi adult worms. The present study reports the cloning and expression of the B. malayi Tn1 (Tn1bm), its immunoprophylactic efficacy against B. malayi infection, and the immunological responses of the host. The Tn1bm gene was cloned (Acc no. JF912447) and expressed, and the purified recombinant Tn1bm (rTn1bm) presented a single ~ 27 kDa band. Parasite load in rTn1bm-immunized BALB/c mice challenged with B. malayi infective larvae (L3) was assessed. In rTn1bm-immunized animals, IgE, IgG, and IgG subclasses in the serum, cell proliferative response, Th1 and Th2 cytokine secretion (from splenocytes), and NO release (from peritoneal macrophages) were determined. Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) to L3 was assayed using rTn1bm-immune serum. The innate immune response markers MHC class-I, MHC class-II, TLR2, TLR4, and TLR6 expression in peritoneal macrophages and CD3+, CD4+, CD8+, and CD19+ in the splenocyte population were determined in Tn1bm-exposed cells from naïve mice. rTn1bm-immunized L3-challenged animals showed a 60% reduction in parasite burden. Immunization upregulated cellular proliferation, cytokine (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, and IL-10) secretion, NO release, and antigen-specific IgG, IgG1, and IgG2b antibody levels. rTn1bm-immune serum killed > 65% of L3 in the ADCC assay. Increased MHC class-II, TLR2, and TLR6 expression and the relative CD4+ and CD19+ cell populations of naïve animal cells indicated the ability of rTn1bm to mobilize innate immune responses. This is the first report of the immunoprophylactic potential of rTn1bm against B. malayi.