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Tri-Level Linear Programming Model for Automatic Load Shedding Using Spectral Clustering

  • Bretas, Arturo
  • Aljohani, Nader
  • Meyn, Sean
Publication Date
Feb 19, 2024
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Traditional load shedding schemes can be inadequate in grids with high renewable penetration, leading to unstable events and unnecessary grid islanding. Although for both manual and automatic operating modes load shedding areas have been predefined by grid operators, they have remained fixed, and may be sub-optimal due to dynamic operating conditions. In this work, a distributed tri-level linear programming model for automatic load shedding to avoid system islanding is presented. Preventing islanding is preferred because it reduces the need for additional load shedding besides the disconnection of transmission lines between islands. This is crucial as maintaining the local generation-demand balance is necessary to preserve frequency stability. Furthermore, uneven distribution of generation resources among islands can lead to increased load shedding, causing economic and reliability challenges. This issue is further compounded in modern power systems heavily dependent on nondispatchable resources like wind and solar. The upper-level model uses complex power flow measurements to determine the system areas to shed load depending on actual operating conditions using a spectral clustering approach. The mid-level model estimates the area system state, while the lower-level model determines the locations and load values to be shed. The solution is practical and promising for real-world applications.

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