BackgroundThe triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index is an alternative marker of insulin resistance (IR) and is closely associated with the prevalence and prognosis of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). However, the association between the TyG index and in-stent restenosis (ISR) after drug-eluting stent (DES) implantation in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS) remains unknown.MethodsThe present study retrospectively recruited patients who were admitted for ACS and underwent coronary angiography at 6 to 24 months after successful DES-based percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). In addition, we calculated the TyG index with the following formula: Ln(fasting triglyceride [mg/dL] × fasting blood glucose [mg/dL]/2) and divided patients into 3 groups according to the tertile of the TyG index. Most importantly, multivariate logistic regression analysis models were also constructed to assess the association between the TyG index and DES-ISR in patients with ACS.ResultsA total of 1574 patients with ACS (58.4 ± 9.4 years, 77.4% male) were included in this study. At the median follow-up time of 12 (9–14) months, the prevalence of DES-ISR increased stepwise with the increasing tertile of the TyG index (11.6% vs 17.3% vs 19.4%, p = 0.002), and the TyG index was also higher in the ISR group than in the non-ISR group (9.00 ± 0.58 vs 8.84 ± 0.61, p < 0.001). In addition, the positive association between the TyG index and the prevalence of DES-ISR was also determined in the fully adjusted model (TyG, per 1-unit increase: OR 1.424, 95% CI 1.116 to 1.818, p = 0.005; tertile of TyG, the OR (95% CI) values for tertile 2 and tertile 3 were 1.454 (1.013 to 2.087) and 1.634 (1.125 to 2.374), respectively, with tertile 1 as a reference). The association was also reflected in most subgroups. Moreover, adding the TyG index to the predictive model for DES-ISR in patients with ACS could contribute to an increase in C-statistics (0.675 vs 0.659, p = 0.010), categorical net reclassification improvement (0.090, p < 0.001), and integrated discrimination improvement (0.004, p = 0.040).ConclusionAn elevated TyG index was independently and positively associated with DES-ISR in patients with ACS who underwent PCI. However, the incremental predictive value of the TyG index for DES-ISR was slight. To further confirm our findings, future studies are needed.