The aim of this research was to compare pain medication use trends among adults with and without type 2 diabetes in the US. This cross-sectional study used data of adults with and without (type 2) diabetes from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey waves 2005-2018. Use of pain medication including opioids, prescription nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, gabapentinoids, serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, skeletal muscle relaxants, and headache treatment agents was compared by diabetes status and within select social determinants of health and clinical factors. Adults with type 2 diabetes were twice as likely to be prescribed pain medications compared to those without a diabetes diagnosis (16.2% vs 8.6%). Females and those with a history of smoking or arthritis were more likely to be on pain medications. Opioid use was the most prevalent regardless of diabetes status, and use was twice as high among those with diabetes (10.8% vs 5.5%). Patients with type 2 diabetes in the US are twice as likely to be prescribed pain medications overall as well as opioids compared with those without diabetes. Clinical guideline recommendations are necessary to find pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic nociceptive pain management specific for patients with diabetes.