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Trends in Nanomaterial-Based Non-Invasive Diabetes Sensing Technologies.

Authors
  • Makaram, Prashanth1
  • Owens, Dawn2
  • Aceros, Juan3
  • 1 Alpha Szenszor Inc., Carlisle, MA 01741, USA. [email protected]
  • 2 Department of Electrical Engineering, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL 32246, USA. [email protected]
  • 3 Department of Electrical Engineering, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL 32246, USA. [email protected]
Type
Published Article
Journal
Diagnostics
Publisher
MDPI AG
Publication Date
Apr 21, 2014
Volume
4
Issue
2
Pages
27–46
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3390/diagnostics4020027
PMID: 26852676
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Blood glucose monitoring is considered the gold standard for diabetes diagnostics and self-monitoring. However, the underlying process is invasive and highly uncomfortable for patients. Furthermore, the process must be completed several times a day to successfully manage the disease, which greatly contributes to the massive need for non-invasive monitoring options. Human serums, such as saliva, sweat, breath, urine and tears, contain traces of glucose and are easily accessible. Therefore, they allow minimal to non-invasive glucose monitoring, making them attractive alternatives to blood measurements. Numerous developments regarding noninvasive glucose detection techniques have taken place over the years, but recently, they have gained recognition as viable alternatives, due to the advent of nanotechnology-based sensors. Such sensors are optimal for testing the amount of glucose in serums other than blood thanks to their enhanced sensitivity and selectivity ranges, in addition to their size and compatibility with electronic circuitry. These nanotechnology approaches are rapidly evolving, and new techniques are constantly emerging. Hence, this manuscript aims to review current and future nanomaterial-based technologies utilizing saliva, sweat, breath and tears as a diagnostic medium for diabetes monitoring.

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