Although chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) has remained incurable with standard treatments, newer therapeutic approaches, such as chemoimmunotherapy or stem cell transplantation, bear the potential for prolonged survival. We estimated trends in age-specific 5- and 10-year absolute and relative survival of CLL patients in the United States between 1980-1984 and 2000-2004 from the 1973 to 2004 database of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program. Period analysis was used to disclose recent developments with minimum delay. Overall, 5- and 10-year absolute survival from diagnosis increased from 54.2% to 60.2% (+6 percentage points; P < .0001) and from 27.8% to 34.8% (+7 percentage points; P < .0001), respectively. Despite a strong age gradient in prognosis, increases in 5-year absolute and relative survival over time were rather homogeneous across age groups. In contrast, increases in 10-year absolute and relative survival close to or well above 10% units were observed for all patients younger than 80 years of age at diagnosis compared with no increase at all for older patients. Long-term survival expectations of patients with CLL have substantially improved over the past 2 decades except for patients 80 years of age or older at the time of diagnosis. Future studies are needed to confirm and expand our findings.