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Trends in energy drink and combined alcohol and energy drinks consumption among Italian high school students, 2008-2019.

Authors
  • Scalese, Marco1
  • Cerrai, Sonia1
  • Biagioni, Silvia1
  • Benedetti, Elisa1
  • Bastiani, Luca1
  • Potente, Roberta1
  • Cutilli, Arianna1
  • Molinaro, Sabrina2
  • 1 Epidemiology and Health Research Lab, Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council, CNR Via G. Moruzzi, 156124 Pisa, Italy. , (Italy)
  • 2 Epidemiology and Health Research Lab, Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council, CNR Via G. Moruzzi, 156124 Pisa, Italy. Electronic address: [email protected] , (Italy)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Drug and alcohol dependence
Publication Date
Sep 24, 2021
Volume
228
Pages
109061–109061
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2021.109061
PMID: 34601280
Source
Medline
Keywords
Language
English
License
Unknown

Abstract

Energy Drinks (ED) are caffeinated beverages marketed as attention and endurance enhancers. The main purpose of this study is to provide national estimates of the prevalence of alcohol mixed with energy drink (AmED) and ED use among school-aged adolescents. A secondary objective is to examine the differences in the prevalence of AmED and ED consumption by gender. For this study, we used data from twelve consecutive years, from ESPAD-Italia®2008 to ESPAD-Italia®2019. From 2008-2019, the prevalence of lifetime consumption of energy drinks increased significantly for male (64.5-75.7%, p < 0.001) and female (46.8-61.8%, p < 0.001). We also observed an increase in both genders for last year prevalence (male: 51.6-63.4%, p < 0.001; female: 32.5-38.3%, p < 0.001), instead prevalence in last month showed an increase only in males (males: 37.5-45.4%, p = <0.001; females: 19.9-20.3%, p = 0.426). Finally, frequent use showed a fluctuating trend, particularly in females (males: 3.2-4.3%, p = 0.422; females: 0.8-0.8%, p = 0.643). From 2013-2019, the prevalence of AmED consumption did not show relevant changes among adolescents. A clear gender gap is evident for both ED and AmED usage prevalence, in all the years considered for lifetime, last year, last month and frequent use. The findings suggest that the prevalence of ED consumption among Italian high school students is very high and has grown substantially over the past 12 years. Differently the prevalence of AmED use, although widespread, did not increase overall since 2013. Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier B.V.

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