A prospective study conducted between 1995 and 1998 assessed trends in contraceptive use in rural Rakai District, Uganda. Over a period of 30 months, women's use of modern contraceptives increased significantly from 11 percent to 20 percent. Male condom use increased from 10 percent to 17 percent. The prevalence of pregnancy among sexually active women 15-49 declined significantly from 15 percent to 13 percent. Women practicing family planning for pregnancy prevention were predominantly in the 20-39-year age group, married, better educated, and had higher parity than others, whereas women or men adopting condoms were predominantly young, unmarried, and better educated. Condom use was particularly high among individuals reporting multiple sexual partners or extramarital relationships. Contraceptive use was higher among women who desired fewer children, among those who wished to space or terminate childbearing, and among women with previous experience of unwanted births or abortions. Self-perception of HIV risk increased condom use, but HIV testing and counseling had only modest effects. Contraception for pregnancy prevention and for HIV/STD prophylaxis are complementary.