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Treinamento resistido previne o desenvolvimento de hipertensão arterial pulmonar em ratos expostos à fumaça secundária de cigarro

Authors
  • Moreno, Ana Caroline Rippi
Publication Date
Jan 25, 2019
Source
Repositório Institucional UNESP
Keywords
Language
Portuguese
License
Unknown
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Abstract

Smoking is one of the greatest threats to public health. Exposure to secondhand smoke is associated with more than 50 diseases, most notably pulmonary emphysema. Resistance training is an effective tool for prevention and health promotion. Little is known about the effects of high intensity resistance training on cardiac and skeletal muscle tissues of experimental models exposed to cigarette smoke. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of resistance training in rats exposed to secondary cigarette smoke. Thirty-two Wistar rats were divided into four groups: Sedentary Control (SC), Sedentary Smoker (SS), Exercised Control (EC) and Exercised Smoker (ES). Animals from the SS and ES groups were exposed to the smoke from four cigarrettes for 30 minutes twice daily, five days a week. The animals exercised (EC and ES) underwent the maximum supported load test (CMS) and the utilized training was the climb on a vertical ladder with increment, once a day, five days a week. Both interventions were performed for 16 weeks. After euthanasia, blood was collected to measure fasting blood glucose dosage, total cholesterol, HDL, and triglycerides. Heart, trachea, lung, liver and gastrocnemius muscle were collected for anatomopathological analysis. Gene analysis of dynamics markers and mitochondrial biogenesis was performed by the RT-PCR technique in fragments of the heart and gastrocnemius muscle. It was observed that SC animals showed a higher gain compared to all other groups (p <0.05), the EC group showed a higher gain than the smoking groups (SS and ES, p <0.05) and the ES group had a lower gain compared to all (p <0.05), associated with lower feed intake (p = 0.0005). The ES group had HDL reduction (ES vs EC p = 0.02). Pulmonary emphysema (SS and SE vs SC and EC p <0.0001) and pulmonary artery thickness enlargement (SS vs SC and EC and ES vs SC, p = 0.003) were found in the smoking groups (SS and ES). In the heart, there was increase in the right ventricle in the animals from SS vs SC, EC and ES (p <0.0001). In the liver, it was observed increase of macrophages in the smokers animals (SS and ES vs. SC p = 0.002). In the skeletal muscle, ES animals presented reduction of muscle fibers (ES vs SC and EC p = 0.0002). In the gene analysis, it was observed an increase of Fis1 in gastrocnemius of SS vs SC (p = 0.05) and Ppargc1a in the heart of ES vs SS (p = 0.01). Therefore, it was concluded that although it did not prevent Emphysema and HP, the RT in smokers rats has prevented pulmonary arterial hypertension possibly by improving the oxidative capacity of the cardiac muscle (increase of Ppargc1a), which could result in the prevention of increased VD. However, negative results were found in the intake and body weight, skeletal muscle (reduction of fiber diameter) and lipoprotein profile (HDL reduction).

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