Human airway is generally destructed by inhaled factors and is the barrier to the external environment and has a crucial role in protection of the internal homeostasis of the lung. Sulfur mustard (SM) is a chemical warfare that capable of producing severe chemical injuries primarily in the lungs. Trefoil factor family (TFFs) plays major roles in epithelial repair and homeostasis, particularly in the lung. This study attempted to verify the role of TFFs in airway that induced by sulfur mustard. Fifteen patients exposed to SM and 10 non-exposed subjects were enrolled in this study. Bronchoscopy was carried out and endobronchial biopsy specimens were taken. The TFFs gene expressions were evaluated by RT-PCR. The results revealed that the TFF1 was overexpressed in exposed subjects in comparison to non-exposed subjects. In conclusion, TFF1 displays a distinct protein expression pattern in the developing of airway remodeling due to SM inhalation and plays an important role in maintaining the airway epithelium function.