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The tree that hides the forest: cryptic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in the Palaearctic vector Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) at the European level

Authors
  • Mignotte, Antoine1, 2
  • Garros, Claire1, 2
  • Gardès, Laetitia1, 3
  • Balenghien, Thomas1, 2, 4
  • Duhayon, Maxime1, 2
  • Rakotoarivony, Ignace1, 2
  • Tabourin, Laura1, 2
  • Poujol, Léa1, 2
  • Mathieu, Bruno5
  • Ibañez-Justicia, Adolfo6
  • Deniz, Ahmet7
  • Cvetkovikj, Aleksandar8
  • Purse, Bethan V.9
  • Ramilo, David W.10
  • Stougiou, Despoina11
  • Werner, Doreen12
  • Pudar, Dubravka13
  • Petrić, Dušan13
  • Veronesi, Eva14
  • Jacobs, Frans6
  • And 28 more
  • 1 ASTRE, Univ Montpellier, Cirad, INRAE, Montpellier, France , Montpellier (France)
  • 2 Cirad, UMR ASTRE, Montpellier, 34398, France , Montpellier (France)
  • 3 Cirad, UMR ASTRE, Petit-Bourg, Guadeloupe, 97170, France , Petit-Bourg (France)
  • 4 Institut Agronomique et Vétérinaire Hassan II, Unité Parasitologie et Maladies Parasitaires, Rabat, 10100, Morocco , Rabat (Morocco)
  • 5 Institute of Parasitology and Tropical Pathology of Strasbourg, Université de Strasbourg, DIHP UR 7292, Strasbourg, 67000, France , Strasbourg (France)
  • 6 Netherlands Food and Consumer Product Safety Authority, Wageningen, The Netherlands , Wageningen (Netherlands)
  • 7 Veterinary Control Central Research Institute, Ankara, Turkey , Ankara (Turkey)
  • 8 Ss. Cyril and Methodius University in Skopje, Skopje, Republic of North Macedonia , Skopje (Macedonia)
  • 9 Centre for Ecology, Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Wallingford, OX10 8BB, UK , Wallingford (United Kingdom)
  • 10 CIISA-Centro de Investigação Interdisciplinar em Sanidade Animal, Faculdade de Medicina Veterinária, Universidade de Lisboa, Avenida da Universidade Técnica, Lisboa, 1300-477, Portugal , Lisboa (Portugal)
  • 11 Veterinary Centre of Athens, Athens, Greece , Athens (Greece)
  • 12 Leibniz-Centre for Agricultural Landscape Research, Müncheberg, Germany , Müncheberg (Germany)
  • 13 University of Novi Sad, Novi Sad, Serbia , Novi Sad (Serbia)
  • 14 University of Zürich, Zürich, Switzerland , Zürich (Switzerland)
  • 15 Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Animal Health, Greifswald, Germany , Greifswald (Germany)
  • 16 AgriFood Institute of Aragón (IA2) Veterinary Faculty, Zaragoza, 50013, Spain , Zaragoza (Spain)
  • 17 Laboratorio de Producción y Sanidad Animal de Granada, Junta de Andalucía, Granada, Spain , Granada (Spain)
  • 18 Doñana Biological Station, CSIC, Sevilla, Spain , Sevilla (Spain)
  • 19 Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Epidemiología y Salud Pública (CIBERESP), Madrid, Spain , Madrid (Spain)
  • 20 Centre for Ecology & Hydrology, Edinburgh, OX10 8BB, UK , Edinburgh (United Kingdom)
  • 21 University of Helsinki, Medicum, Haartmaninkatu 3, Helsinki, 00014, Finland , Helsinki (Finland)
  • 22 National Veterinary Research Institute, Puławy, Poland , Puławy (Poland)
  • 23 Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale dell’Abruzzo e del Molise ‘G. Caporale’, Campo Boario, Teramo, 64100, Italy , Teramo (Italy)
  • 24 The Pirbright Institute, Pirbright, UK , Pirbright (United Kingdom)
  • 25 University of Liverpool, Leahurst, Chester High Road, Neston, Cheshire, CH64 7TE, UK , Neston (United Kingdom)
  • 26 University of the Balearic Islands UIB, Palma, Spain , Palma (Spain)
  • 27 University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark , Copenhagen (Denmark)
  • 28 National Diagnostic and Research Veterinary Medical Institute, Sofia, Bulgaria , Sofia (Bulgaria)
  • 29 Norwegian Veterinary Institute, Oslo, Norway , Oslo (Norway)
  • 30 Institute of Food safety, Animal Health and Environment ‘BIOR’, Riga, Latvia , Riga (Latvia)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Parasites & Vectors
Publisher
Springer (Biomed Central Ltd.)
Publication Date
May 20, 2020
Volume
13
Issue
1
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1186/s13071-020-04114-1
Source
Springer Nature
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

BackgroundCulicoides obsoletus is an abundant and widely distributed Holarctic biting midge species, involved in the transmission of bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV) to wild and domestic ruminants. Females of this vector species are often reported jointly with two morphologically very close species, C. scoticus and C. montanus, forming the Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex. Recently, cryptic diversity within C. obsoletus was reported in geographically distant sites. Clear delineation of species and characterization of genetic variability is mandatory to revise their taxonomic status and assess the vector role of each taxonomic entity. Our objectives were to characterize and map the cryptic diversity within the Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex.MethodsPortion of the cox1 mitochondrial gene of 3763 individuals belonging to the Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex was sequenced. Populations from 20 countries along a Palaearctic Mediterranean transect covering Scandinavia to Canary islands (North to South) and Canary islands to Turkey (West to East) were included. Genetic diversity based on cox1 barcoding was supported by 16S rDNA mitochondrial gene sequences and a gene coding for ribosomal 28S rDNA. Species delimitation using a multi-marker methodology was used to revise the current taxonomic scheme of the Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex.ResultsOur analysis showed the existence of three phylogenetic clades (C. obsoletus clade O2, C. obsoletus clade dark and one not yet named and identified) within C. obsoletus. These analyses also revealed two intra-specific clades within C. scoticus and raised questions about the taxonomic status of C. montanus.ConclusionsTo our knowledge, our study provides the first genetic characterization of the Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex on a large geographical scale and allows a revision of the current taxonomic classification for an important group of vector species of livestock viruses in the Palaearctic region.

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