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Treatment of Toxoplasmosis and Neosporosis in Farm Ruminants: State of Knowledge and Future Trends

Authors
  • Sánchez-Sánchez, Roberto
  • Vázquez, Patricia
  • Ferre, Ignacio
  • Ortega-Mora, Luis Miguel
Type
Published Article
Journal
Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Publisher
Bentham Science Publishers
Publication Date
Jun 01, 2018
Volume
18
Issue
15
Pages
1304–1323
Identifiers
DOI: 10.2174/1568026618666181002113617
PMID: 30277158
PMCID: PMC6340160
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
License
Green

Abstract

Toxoplasmosis and neosporosis are closely related protozoan diseases that lead to important economic impacts in farm ruminants. Toxoplasma gondii infection mainly causes reproductive failure in small ruminants and is a widespread zoonosis, whereas Neospora caninum infection is one of the most important causes of abortion in cattle worldwide. Vaccination has been considered the most economic measure for controlling these diseases. However, despite vaccine development efforts, only a live-attenuated T. gondii vaccine has been licensed for veterinary use, and no promising vaccines against ne-osporosis have been developed; therefore, vaccine development remains a key goal. Additionally, drug therapy could be a valuable strategy for disease control in farm ruminants, as several drugs that limit T. gondii and N. caninum proliferation and dissemination have been evaluated. This approach may also be relevant to performing an initial drug screening for potential human therapy for zoonotic parasites. Treat-ments can be applied against infections in adult ruminants to minimize the outcomes of a primo-infection or the reactivation of a chronic infection during gestation or in newborn ruminants to avoid infection chronification. In this review, the current status of drug development against toxoplasmosis and neosporo-sis in farm ruminants is presented, and in an effort to promote additional treatment options, prospective drugs that have shown efficacy in vitro and in laboratory animal models of toxoplasmosis and neosporosis are examined

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