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Treatment strategies for nonmotor manifestations of Parkinson's disease.

Authors
Type
Published Article
Journal
Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
1744-7666
Publisher
Informa UK (Taylor & Francis)
Publication Date
Volume
10
Issue
5
Pages
773–784
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1517/14656560902811605
PMID: 19351227
Source
Medline

Abstract

To date, Parkinson's disease tends to have been perceived mainly as a disorder affecting the extrapyramidal motor system and leading to tremor, bradykinesia, rigidity, and--in later stages--postural instability. However, it is now apparent that patients frequently experience additional clinical symptoms, such as pain, autonomic and sensory dysfunction, neuropsychiatric disorders and sleep disorders. These symptoms often impair patients' quality of life to a greater extent than the motor symptoms. Treatment of these nonmotor features is mandatory and directly improves quality of life. Unfortunately, hardly any double-blind, randomized, controlled studies are available, with the consequence that most recommendations are not based on the highest level of evidence.

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