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Treatment Response of Deferiprone in Infratentorial Superficial Siderosis: a Systematic Review

Authors
  • Flores Martin, Andreas1
  • Shanmugarajah, Priya1
  • Hoggard, Nigel2
  • Hadjivassiliou, Marios1
  • 1 Royal Hallamshire Hospital and University of Sheffield,
  • 2 University of Sheffield,
Type
Published Article
Journal
Cerebellum (London, England)
Publisher
Springer US
Publication Date
Jan 06, 2021
Volume
20
Issue
3
Pages
454–461
Identifiers
DOI: 10.1007/s12311-020-01222-7
PMID: 33409768
PMCID: PMC8213658
Source
PubMed Central
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Review
License
Unknown

Abstract

Superficial siderosis describes haemosiderin deposition on the surface of the brain. When present on infratentorial structures, it can cause ataxia, sensorineural hearing loss and pyramidal signs. There is no proven treatment and patients experience slow progression of symptoms. Iron-chelating agents have been suggested as a therapeutic option and deferiprone is suited as it crosses the blood-brain barrier. However, deferiprone is reported to have a 1–2% risk of agranulocytosis. We performed a systematic review on treatment of infratentorial superficial siderosis with deferiprone based on PRISMA guidelines. Studies were included if in English or an English language translation was available, were about human subjects and referred to patients with ataxia. Studies were excluded if they did not possess an English translation, included animal studies or did not have ataxia. Studies were excluded if they discussed cerebral amyloid angiopathy or siderosis of other regions. Eleven papers were included. We identified 69 patients. Seventeen patients (25%) discontinued the drug. The most encountered adverse effect was anaemia (21.7%). Neutropaenia was observed in 8.7% and agranulocytosis in 5.8% of patients. Clinically, response varied, and stability or improvement was seen across neurological domains in 6 studies while 5 showed a mixed response. On imaging, 13 (28.9%) patients improved, 24 (53.3%) stabilised and 8 (17.8%) deteriorated. A prospective international centralised register of patients should be developed to inform the design and conduct of a multicentre, placebo-controlled, randomised clinical trial to evaluate the efficacy of deferiprone. The evidence from this systematic review is that deferiprone is a promising intervention.

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