Pancreaticopleural fistulas are rare but serious complications of chronic or recurrent inflammatory pancreatic disease. Massive unilateral or bilateral pleural effusion may occur in association with rupture of pancreatic duct or pseudocyst into the pleural cavity. In the past decade we have treated 10 patients with pancreaticopleural fistulas. Eight of them had a previous history of inflammatory pancreatic disease. Diagnosis was made by finding a markedly elevated amylase level (10 pts) in the pleural fluid. US and CT examination enabled the establishment of the diagnosis of pancreatic origin, showing chronic pancreatic (9 pts) and pancreatic pseudocyst (6 pts). Pancreaticopleural fistula was successfully demonstrated by ERCP in four patients. Initial treatment was non-operative using total parenteral or jejunal nutrition and multiple thoracocentesis or thoracic drainage. Anti-secretory octreotide therapy was used in all patients. This conservative treatment was successful in three patients (3/10). Septic complication (1 pt) and unsuccessful medical therapy (6 pts) recommended surgical intervention. Decompression procedure (4 pts) and resection (3 pts) were performed. Surgery was successful in all seven patients. We lost no patients and none of them required subsequent surgical treatment.