To describe the mycologic and clinical outcomes and factors associated with failure in Peruvian patients with AIDS-associated cryptococcal meningitis (CM) treated with amphotericin B deoxycholate (Amph B) followed by fluconazole. Patients were treated with intravenous Amph B 0.7 mg/kg/day for 2 or 3 weeks followed by oral fluconazole 400mg/day for 7 or 8 weeks. Clinical and laboratory evaluations including cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies were performed at baseline and at weeks 2 and 10. The CSF cultures were negative in 25% and 68% of 47 patients at weeks 2 and 10, respectively. In the univariate analysis, baseline low body mass index (BMI), hyponatremia, low serum albumin, positive blood culture and CSF antigen titers >or=1024 were associated with a positive CSF culture at week 2. Baseline positive urine culture, positive blood culture, any positive extraneural culture and CSF opening pressure at week 2 >or=300 mm H2O were associated with a positive CSF culture at week 10. In the multivariate analysis no association was found. Therapy with Amph B and fluconazole, combined with aggressive management of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP), results in low CSF sterilization rates at week 2 and acceptable CSF sterilization rates at week 10 when compared with other series.