The aim of this study was to develop a treatment for late Lyme borreliosis and to compare the clinical results with serological findings before and after treatment. It was done in the Aland Islands (population 25,000), a region endemic for Lyme borreliosis. The patients were the first consecutive 100 patients from the Aland Islands with late Lyme borreliosis. They were followed for at least 1 year after treatment. The clinical results of treatment were compared with results of analyses of flagellar IgG antibodies to Borrelia burgdorferi done at the time of diagnosis before treatment and up to 12 months afterwards. Short periods of treatment were not generally effective. The outcome was successful in four of 13 treatments with 14 days of intravenous ceftriaxone alone, in 50 of 56 assessable treatments with ceftriaxone followed by 100 days of amoxycillin plus probenecid, and in 19 of 23 completed treatments with ceftriaxone followed by 100 days of cephadroxil. Titres of IgG antibodies to B. burgdorferi flagella declined significantly after 6 and 12 months in the patients who had successful treatments. All patients whose final titres were less than 30% of the initial titre were in the successful group. Their titres usually remained above the upper limit of normal for a long time but a decline to a value of less than 30% of that before treatment was always a sign of cure.