Marcello Malpighi (1628-1694), who is referred to as the father of microscopical anatomy, histology, physiology and embryology was an Italian biologist and physician, well known for his discoveries on microscopical anatomy of kidney, circulating and lymphatic systems. As well as being a brilliant anatomist, Malpighi was also a valued physician so far as to became the personal physician of Pope Innocent XII (1615-1700). On 23 August 1691, one month after his election, the Pope fell to the ground hitting his left hip. Malpighi, as his personal physician, was immediately called and diagnosed a hip fracture. At that time fractures were generally treated by surgeons, barbers and sawbones, while physicians were mainly concerned with internal diseases. Despite that, Marcello Malpighi cured Pope Innocent XII's hip fracture by applying some modern traumatologic concepts. This article analyses how Malpighi treated this hip fracture, comparing it with the current approach.