The in vitro bactericidal interaction of trovafloxacin and rifampin against Enterococcus spp. has indicated that antagonism occurs between these two antimicrobial agents. This drug combination was examined in vivo in rats with experimental pyelonephritis. The rats received trovafloxacin, rifampin, or both drugs. On the basis of the mean log10 CFU of Enterococcus faecalis from the kidneys, there was no evidence that trovafloxacin and rifampin were antagonistic in vivo.