The history of the Mediterranean shows that transport and logistics have always been a tool for economic development, enhancing territorial structuring and cohesion. As a result of trade liberalisation, transport and logistics have become a key element in the competitiveness of goods on international markets. Eminently competitive, this sector, albeit private, also relates to spatial planning policies, be they regional, European, Mediterranean, or national policies. Regional and local authorities are taking a keen interest in the major infrastructure projects supported by the European Union. Their interest stems from their wish not to be isolated or excluded from future key arteries.