The adhesion of surfactant molecules on the microplastics surface is affected by the surface structure of the microplastics. Little is known about the mobility of different microplastics in the medium under surfactants. In order to reveal the migration of different microplastics under the action of surfactants, the study selected five kinds of microplastics (polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polystyrene (PS), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)) and two kinds of surfactants (cetyltrimethylammonium bromide, CTAB and sodium dodecyl benzene sulfonate, SDBS) as the research objects. The column experiment was used to explore the transport behavior of microplastics under different concentrations of surfactants and the convection dispersion model was used to simulate. The dynamic contact angle of the surfactant solution on the microplastics was measured and the adhesion work was calculated by the Young-Dupre equation to reveal the underlying mechanism of microplastics retention in the presence of surfactants. The results showed that the transport ability of microplastics followed the order of PTFE <PMMA <PS <PE <PP, and the mobility under high concentrations of surfactants was greater than that at low concentrations, which was mainly attributed to the difference in the adhesion of the surfactant on the surface of the microplastics, which lead to differences in the migration between the microplastics. When the microplastics were close to each other, if the reaction force of the electrostatic force was greater than the adhesion force of the surfactant molecules on the surface, the surfactant molecules would be separated from the microplastics and the stability of the microplastics would decrease. In addition, the migration ability of microplastics in anionic surfactants was weaker than that of cationic surfactants, because the osmotic and elastic repulsion produced by SDBS were weaker than CTAB. The research results were of great significance for understanding the environmental behavior of microplastics affected by surfactants, and objectively evaluating the transport and fate behavior of microplastics-surfactants in the environment. Copyright © 2022. Published by Elsevier Ltd.