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Translational Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Autism Spectrum Disorder From the Mouse Model to Human

Authors
  • Tsurugizawa, Tomokazu1, 2
  • 1 Human Informatics and Interaction Research Institute, National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology (AIST), Tsukuba , (Japan)
  • 2 Faculty of Engineering, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba , (Japan)
Type
Published Article
Journal
Frontiers in Neuroscience
Publisher
Frontiers Media SA
Publication Date
May 02, 2022
Volume
16
Identifiers
DOI: 10.3389/fnins.2022.872036
Source
Frontiers
Keywords
Disciplines
  • Neuroscience
  • Review
License
Green

Abstract

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a heterogeneous syndrome characterized by behavioral features such as impaired social communication, repetitive behavior patterns, and a lack of interest in novel objects. A multimodal neuroimaging using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with ASD shows highly heterogeneous abnormalities in function and structure in the brain associated with specific behavioral features. To elucidate the mechanism of ASD, several ASD mouse models have been generated, by focusing on some of the ASD risk genes. A specific behavioral feature of an ASD mouse model is caused by an altered gene expression or a modification of a gene product. Using these mouse models, a high field preclinical MRI enables us to non-invasively investigate the neuronal mechanism of the altered brain function associated with the behavior and ASD risk genes. Thus, MRI is a promising translational approach to bridge the gap between mice and humans. This review presents the evidence for multimodal MRI, including functional MRI (fMRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and volumetric analysis, in ASD mouse models and in patients with ASD and discusses the future directions for the translational study of ASD.

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