Alcohol accounts for major disability worldwide and available treatments are insufficient. A massive growth in the area of addiction neuroscience over the last several decades has not resulted in a corresponding expansion of treatment options available to patients. In this chapter, we describe our experience with building translational research programs aimed at developing novel pharmacotherapies for alcoholism. The narrative is based on experience and considerations made in the course of building these programs, and work on four mechanisms targeted by our libraries: cholinergic nicotine receptors, receptors for corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), neurokinin 1 (NK1) receptors for substance P (SP) and hypocretin/orexin receptors. Around this experience, we discuss issues we believe to be critical for successful translation of basic addiction neuroscience into treatments, and complementarities between academic and other actors that in our assessment need to be harnessed in order to bring treatments to the clinic.