The first step in poliovirus replication is binding of virus to a cellular receptor. Mouse L cells, which are resistant to poliovirus infection because they do not bear a poliovirus receptor, were transformed with HeLa cell (human) DNA to poliovirus sensitivity at a frequency of approximately 1 in 50,000 transformants. Monoclonal antibody directed against the HeLa cell poliovirus receptor site was used in rosette assays to identify poliovirus-sensitive L-cell transformants in a background of L-cell tk+ transformants. A cloned cell line, CM-1, was isolated that displayed a surface component recognized by the anti-poliovirus receptor antibody. CM-1 cells were susceptible to infection with all three poliovirus serotypes, and infection could be blocked by the antireceptor antibody. Poliovirus formed plaques in CM-1 and HeLa cells with equal efficiency. CM-1 and HeLa cells produced infectious poliovirus at a similar rate, although yield of virus in CM-1 cells was about 33% less than the yield in HeLa cells. These results suggest that DNA encoding the HeLa cell poliovirus receptor has been introduced into mouse cells, resulting in the expression of the receptor and susceptibility to poliovirus infection.