Cyanobacteria are a diverse and successful group of bacteria defined by their ability to carry out oxygenic photosynthesis. They occupy diverse ecological niches and are important primary producers in the oceans. Cyanobacteria are amenable to genetic manipulation. Some strains are naturally transformable. Many others have been transformed in the lab by conjugation or electroporation. The ability to transform cyanobacteria has been determinant in the development of the molecular biology of these organisms and has been the basis of many of their biotechnological applications. Cyanobacteria are the source of natural products and toxins of potential use and can be engineered to synthesize substances of biotechnological interest. Their high protein and vitamin content makes them useful as a dietary supplement. Because of their ability to occupy diverse ecological niches, they can be used to deliver to the medium substances of interest or as biosensors.