The effect of the key iron homeostasis proteins transferrin and ferritin on the activity of partially purified brain calcium-calmodulin-dependent phosphodiesterase (CaM-PDE, EC 220.127.116.11) were studied. Transferrin and ferritin were found to be potent natural activators of CaM-PDE. The key factor determining the degree of activation by these proteins is their saturation with iron: apotransferrin activated CaM-PDE 6-7-fold; iron-poor brain ferritin and liver apoferritin (taken for comparison) activated the enzyme 4-5- and 2-fold, respectively. Diferric transferrin and iron-rich liver ferritin had no effects on the enzyme activity. Transferrin and ferritin (both in apo- and iron-saturated forms) did not change the activity of calmodulin-phosphodiesterase complex. The data suggest that apotransferrin and iron-poor transferrin are involved in the regulation of cyclic nucleotide content in nervous tissue.