Ovarian follicular development and differentiation is characterized by dramatic changes in aromatase (Cyp19a1) expression. In preovulatory follicles, activation of the FSH receptor increases aromatase expression until the surge of LH decreases it. Here we provide in vivo evidence that down-regulation of Cyp19a1 by the LH surge requires efficient signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). The human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)-induced down-regulation of Cyp19a1 expression in the two different mouse models with inactivating mutations of the EGFR (wa2 and velvet) is impaired but not abolished. The hCG-induced phosphorylation of ovarian ERK1/2, expression of C/EBPbeta, and the phosphorylation of Connexin43 (two downstream targets of ERK1/2 action) are also decreased in these two mouse models. In contrast, disruption of EGFR signaling does not have any affect on the hCG-induced phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein or AKT. This study provides the first in vivo evidence linking the LH receptor, the EGFR, and ERK1/2 as sequential components of a pathway that regulates ovarian Cyp19a1 expression.